In “Journalism in the Global Age”, Josephi provided an overview of different theories regarding journalism. With increasing access to technology and information, the current practice of journalism no longer fits into the theories of previous times. In this piece, Josephi initially presents Carey’s thoughts on journalism and democracy. According to Carey, non-democratic societies have information providers, not journalists. This presumes that journalism is characterized by objective reporting which cannot be possible in places such as China where the state is presumed to control the news. Merrill’s theories supported this, stating that while there is journalism in western countries, the rest of the world is information with little interpretation. Furthermore, this is what global journalism is – facts without discussion or interpretation. I think this makes sense as it can be difficult to interpret news or events from a global perspective as a journalist may not be aware of various cultural norms and ideologies. An American journalist presenting news on political events in Nigeria or Russia will bring along his or her own biases and may misinterpret/misreport information or events. Cultural competency will need to be addressed in moving forward with global journalism.
Hallin and Mancini in Josephi addressed the media systems patterns that we read about previously. Again, it is noted that the Liberal model (which is the model the US fits into) is becoming the global norm. Information-oriented journalism with commercial broadcasting appears to be what even some of the more traditional European media are shifting towards. The focus is no longer on providing information to elicit discussion to lead to social consensus, but is now on entertainment and consumerism. Josephi then went on to discuss the Internet and its role in changing journalism. With bloggers undermining the professionalism and the internet’s contribution to higher participation, we are left to wonder what will become of journalists.
Josephi concluded stating that a theory needs to be developed for parts of the world other than the US and Western Europe. However, if we go back to the idea of no journalism without democracy, would it even be possible to develop such a theory for non-democratic societies? Along those same lines, the “Media Ethics Beyond Borders” review provided an example of the immediacy of information spread via the internet as a way to show that the local model of journalism no longer applies and a focus needs to be placed on global media ethics. However, could there be such a thing as global media ethics? Are our societies similar enough to create something standardized? Tom Patterson might suggest the internet has played a role in this.
Tom Patterson’s The Internet, Globalization and Media Future YouTube video reiterated much of what we have discussed throughout this course. He provided pros (increased access) and cons (need to filter) of the internet. He also introduced this idea of changing realities, which I found to be interesting and may support the possibility of global media ethics. With the increase of citizen journalism across the world, we are more able to get the perspectives of say citizens on the ground in Egypt or Russia. Instead of simply the controlled media we previously were exposed to, there is the possibility of greater cultural encounters which will serve to expand our individual beliefs and likely make us more understanding to other cultures. With the internet’s ability to connect people across cultures, there will be an increase in commonality and values. Rhee’s “The rise of internet news media and the emergence of discursive publics in South Korea” provides South Korea as an example of how the internet contributed to the democratic society. The internet emerged as a new and major news provider. Not only did it lead to increased expression of opinions and information gathering, but also discursive interactions even offline.
DQ: Who is best fit to create a global media ethics? If it were up to you, of what would it consist?